August 16, 2018
Ottawa researchers discover a new way to make cancer cells more susceptible to virus-based therapies
Over the past decade, researchers have made significant progress in designing oncolytic viruses (OVs) – viruses that destroy cancer cells while leaving healthy tissue unharmed. However, some cancer cells are resistant to this type of therapy and their resistance mechanisms remain poorly understood.
Researchers at the The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, under the leadership of Dr. Carolina Ilkow, have discovered that a common cellular mechanism, RNAi, allows cancer cells to fight back against cancer-fighting viruses. Their findings, recently published in the Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer, show that blocking RNAi processes in tumours can make cancer cells more susceptible to OVs.
May 17, 2018
Combination of erectile dysfunction drugs and flu vaccine may help kill remaining cancer after surgery
A remarkable study led by Dr. Rebecca Auer from The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) shows that the unlikely combination of erectile dysfunction drugs and the flu vaccine may boost the immune system’s ability to clean up cancer cells left behind after surgery. This method demonstrated promising results in a mouse model, where it reduced the spread of cancer following surgery by 90 per cent. Now the approach will be tested in a first-of-its-kind clinical trial involving 24 patients at TOH.
March 8, 2018
OICR’s Brain Cancer Translational Research Initiative (TRI) and the Terry Fox Precision Oncology for Young People Program (PROFYLE) are partnering to share data and deliver improved treatment options to young brain cancer patients.
January 30, 2018
Early results from COMPASS trial demonstrate benefits of using genomic sequencing to guide treatment for pancreatic cancer
Genomic profiling has allowed physicians to customize treatments for patients with many types of cancer, but bringing this technology to bear against advanced pancreatic cancer has proven to be extremely difficult. OICR’s pancreatic cancer Translational Research Initiative, called PanCuRx, has been conducting a first-of-its-kind clinical trial called COMPASS to evaluate the feasibility of using real time genomic sequencing in pancreatic cancer care. The research team recently reported early results from the trial, which show how they overcame the challenges of genomic profiling specific to pancreatic cancer and gained new insights about the disease.
PanCuRx is focused on improving treatment for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common form of pancreatic cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in Canada. The group’s approach centres around understanding the genetics and biology of PDAC to inform the selection of therapies, as well as the development of new treatments.
January 4, 2018
Researchers at The Ottawa Hospital and the University of Ottawa have found that a combination of two immunotherapies – oncolytic viruses and checkpoint inhibitors – was successful in treating triple-negative breast cancer in mouse models. Triple-negative breast cancer is the most aggressive and hard-to-treat form of the disease.
October 20, 2017
Researchers have discovered a new potential treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). They found that boosting fat cells (adipocytes) within bone marrow with the use of a common diabetes drug slowed the growth of cancerous cells and promoted the regeneration of healthy blood cells.
September 6, 2017
Today’s therapies for medulloblastoma, a highly aggressive form of childhood brain cancer, bring benefits to young patients but also come with serious side effects. Dr. Michael Taylor and a team of international collaborators recently published results in Nature of an ambitious project that analyzed the genomes of around 500 cases of medulloblastoma. Their goal was to identify gene mutations that are commonly mutated in the cancer, but not in the normal cells of patients.
August 30, 2017
An international team of scientists have used an innovative barcode-like system to track the behaviour of individual glioblastoma cells, allowing them to see how the cells of this deadly form of brain cancer have successfully evaded treatment and how they spread.
July 12, 2017
Given the advancements in treating many other types of cancer, it may come as a surprise that outcomes for patients with the most deadly form of ovarian cancer have not improved in 50 years. This form, known as High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer (HGSOC), accounts for 80 per cent of ovarian cancer deaths in Canada. Surgery and chemotherapy can be effective, but ultimately three-quarters of women with HGSOC will see their disease return. To deliver better outcomes for patients, OICR has launched a new ‘all star team’ of ovarian cancer researchers.
July 11, 2017
The body’s immune system is incredibly powerful. Its ability to detect and destroy various pathogens makes it central to maintaining good health. While we all know the role it plays in fighting the common cold or flu, many do not know that it has recently been enlisted by scientists in the fight against cancer. Researchers in a field known as immuno-oncology are working to find ways to turn on the body’s defences to locate and destroy tumour cells. OICR recently established a team of expert scientists and clinicians to develop and test new immunotherapies to help patients.
July 11, 2017
New research group aims to exploit genomic differences within brain cancer to develop new treatments
This year, almost 3,000 Canadians will be diagnosed with brain cancer – one of the hardest forms of cancer to treat. In May, OICR launched its Brain Cancer Translational Research Initiative (TRI) to leverage recent insights into the genomic heterogeneity in two common types of brain cancer – Medulloblastoma (MB) and Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM). Developing a better understanding of the genes and pathways central to MB and GBM will enable the development of new drugs and provide a much needed improvement in treatment options for patients, many of whom are children and young adults and are particularly susceptible to long-term side effects from treatment.
July 11, 2017
The rising use of stem cell-based therapies has illustrated the power of stem cells to treat a number of diseases. Now a group of Ontario researchers are looking at the promise of stem cells from a different perspective. Amongst other efforts, they are developing and testing new therapies that target and kill leukemic stem cells to lessen the chances of acute leukemias (AL) coming back following standard treatment.