May 17, 2018
Dr. Michael Fraser, Director of the Prostate Program in the Computational Biology group at OICR, has been named a 2018 NextGen Star by the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). Awarded to only eight researchers around the world, AACR’s NextGen Stars program recognizes outstanding early-career scientists who have made significant contributions to cancer research.
April 19, 2018
Largest-ever study of its kind uses a tumour’s past to accurately predict its future
Toronto (April 19, 2018) – Findings from Canadian Prostate Cancer Genome Network (CPC-GENE) researchers and their collaborators, published today in Cell, show that the aggressiveness of an individual prostate cancer can be accurately assessed by looking at how that tumour has evolved. This information can be used to determine what type and how much treatment should be given to each patient, or if any is needed at all.
The researchers analyzed the whole genome sequences of 293 localized prostate cancer tumours, linked to clinical outcome data. These were then further analyzed using machine learning, a type of statistical technique, to infer the evolutionary past of a tumour and to estimate its trajectory. They found that those tumours that had evolved to have multiple types of cancer cells, or subclones, were the most aggressive. Fifty-nine per cent of tumours in the study had this genetic diversity, with 61 per cent of those leading to relapse following standard therapy.
“By incorporating time into the context of the existing knowledge we have about where a tumour is at diagnosis we were able to very accurately identify those patients whose prostate tumours needed no treatment, those men who could be cured by existing treatments, and those men who had very aggressive tumours and may have benefitted from novel therapeutic options,” says Dr. Paul Boutros, Principal Investigator, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research and leader of CPC-GENE.
“Clinical decision making in treating prostate cancer can be very difficult. These findings pave the way for a new tool to improve our ability to determine the best approach for each individual patient, including sparing patients from unnecessary treatment or over-treatment and the associated side effects,” says Professor Robert Bristow, Director of the Manchester Cancer Research Centre at the University of Manchester U.K., formerly of the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto.
“Tumours are a community of related cancer cells, and by examining their DNA using machine learning, we can gain insight into how they evolved from normal cells. In this paper, we show that the past evolutionary history of a tumour helps predict whether that tumour will progress into an aggressive form,” says Dr. Quaid Morris, Associate Professor, The Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, who collaborated with the CPC-GENE team on the study.
“Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men,” says Reza Moridi, Ontario’s Minister of Research, Innovation and Science. “Ontario congratulates this research team, whose work is pointing the way toward improved testing and treatment.”
The study’s findings are not its only contributions to prostate cancer research. The sequencing data generated during the course of the study are now freely available online to researchers worldwide to carry out further analyses, becoming the largest prostate cancer genomics resource available to-date.
CPC-GENE is a team of multidisciplinary researchers from across Canada working to crack the genetic code of prostate cancer. Through funding of approximately $20 million, research of this magnitude has been made possible through a partnership between the Movember Foundation, Prostate Cancer Canada, and the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research. Dr. Stuart Edmonds, Vice-President of Research, Health Promotion and Survivorship at Prostate Cancer Canada, has released the following statement:
“From the tireless work of researchers to the selfless giving of donors, we applaud the efforts of everyone who has played a role in helping make CPC-GENE possible. Since its beginnings as an ambitious undertaking that was massive in scope, the goal of this project has been to greatly improve personalized care for men with prostate cancer. The findings published in Cell – widely considered one of the most prestigious and highest impact medical journals – represent a monumental stride towards that goal. Together, we will continue to advance this important work on behalf of the one in seven Canadian men who will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and their families.”
About Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
The Ontario Institute for Cancer Research is a collaborative, not-for-profit research institute focused on accelerating the translation of new cancer research discoveries to patients around the world while maximizing the economic benefit of this research for the people of Ontario. Funding for OICR is provided by the Government of Ontario.
About Prostate Cancer Canada
Prostate Cancer Canada is the leading national foundation dedicated to the elimination of the most common cancer in men through research, advocacy, education, support and awareness. As one of the largest investors in prostate cancer research in Canada, Prostate Cancer Canada is committed to continuous discovery in the areas of prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and support.
For more information, please contact:
Senior Communications Officer
Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
VP, Philanthropy, Marketing and Communications
Prostate Cancer Canada
416-441-2131 ext 224
September 25, 2017
Since mitochondria are inherited maternally, it may strike some as an odd place to go looking for connections to prostate cancer. But recently an international research team explored that relationship by looking at how the small amount of DNA contained in mitochondria, a cellular structure, is involved in prostate cancer.
March 16, 2017
Genetic tests are being used more commonly in the diagnosis of many types of cancer. However, there currently isn’t a highly accurate test that can identify men with aggressive forms of prostate cancer, making it more difficult to choose the most appropriate course of treatment.
January 10, 2017
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Canadian men, but there is still no one-size-fits-all strategy for treating the disease. Currently it is difficult to choose exactly the right type and amount of treatment for each individual because it is hard to accurately assess how aggressive the cancer is. Researchers are now a step closer to bringing a powerful new prognostic tool into clinical use.
January 9, 2017
Findings published in renowned journal Nature
January 9, 2017 – TORONTO, ON – The Canadian Prostate Cancer Genome Network (CPC-GENE) has published findings from the world’s most comprehensive genetic analysis of prostate cancer tumours in the journal Nature. Led by Drs. Robert Bristow of the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Paul Boutros of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, CPC-GENE has uncovered the full set of mutations that can occur in the most common cancer in men. By fully cataloging these mutations, the CPC-GENE team was able to create a new signature that predicts at an early stage whether a prostate cancer tumour will become aggressive or not, allowing for personalized treatment.
October 19, 2016
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Canadian men and while it has been the focus of extensive research, an estimated 4,000 Canadians die of the disease each year. That is why six years ago Dr. Paul Boutros and Dr. Rob Bristow set out to sequence the normal and diseased tissue of 350 patients and learn from a clinical perspective how genomic information can be used to guide better treatment.
September 15, 2016
Dr. Paul Boutros, Principal Investigator in Informatics and Bio-computing at OICR, spoke to our partners at Prostate Cancer Canada/Movember Canada about the role of genomics and informatics in prostate cancer research. Boutros also spoke about the CPC-GENE project – the largest study of prostate cancer genomics in the world.
September 15, 2016
On September 13 the Government of Canada, through Genome Canada, made a $4 million investment in Canadian big data research to help improve real world challenges such as infectious disease outbreaks, managing food crops and combating cancer.
Of the 16 projects funded across Canada, three are based at OICR. Led by OICR Principal Investigators Drs. Paul Boutros, Vincent Ferretti, Jared Simpson and Lincoln Stein (Stein is also OICR’s Interim Scientific Director and leader of the Institute’s Informatics and Biocomputing Program), the projects are developing ways to make genomics and health data more manageable, securely accessible and easily understood. Together these projects will help to facilitate cancer research and assist in the adoption of more precision medicine. As well, they have applications in other fields of genomics research beyond cancer, such as agriculture and energy.
For more information on OICR's research, careers, events and education, visit our corporate website: OICR.ON.CA