April 15, 2021
A new study has looked at the effects of bans on menthol cigarettes after two years across seven Canadian provinces and found that once in place, 58.7 per cent of menthol smokers attempted to quit compared to 49 per cent in non-menthol smokers. The study was conducted by the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project), which is led by Dr. Geoff Fong, OICR Senior Investigator and Professor at the University of Waterloo.
The study, published in the journal Tobacco Control, also found that those who smoke menthols daily were nearly twice as likely to attempt to quit as daily non-menthol smokers – 21 vs. 11.6 per cent. Also, menthol smokers who had quit before the ban were much less likely than non-menthol smokers to relapse. The study used a national sample of 1,098 non-menthol and 138 menthol smokers participating in the ITC Canada Smoking and Vaping Survey, who were surveyed both before the menthol ban (in 2016) and after the menthol ban (in 2018).
Menthol flavoured cigarettes create a cooling effect that numbs the harshness of cigarette smoke, which helps draw in and keep new smokers, especially young people. They are also of concern to public health experts in the U.S., where 85 per cent of menthol cigarette smokers are African American. As a result, that community has felt much greater harms from menthol cigarette use. Fong and other experts have continued to call for a ban in the U.S.
“Our study demonstrates the substantial benefits of banning menthol cigarettes,” says Fong. “The enormous success of the Canadian menthol ban makes it even clearer now that the U.S. should finally ban menthol, which the tobacco industry has used for decades to attract new smokers and to keep many of them as customers, especially among the African American community.”
“The positive effects of the Canada menthol ban suggest that a U.S. menthol ban would lead to greater benefits since menthol cigarettes are much more popular in the U.S. From our findings, we estimate that banning menthol cigarettes in the U.S. would lead an additional 923,000 smokers to quit, including 230,000 African American smokers.”
November 18, 2020
Ontario cancer research leaders, Drs. Geoff Fong, Trevor Pugh and Lincoln Stein recognized as Highly Cited Researchers by Clarivate for their influential work
OICR is proud to celebrate the recognition of three Ontario cancer research leaders, Drs. Geoffrey Fong, Trevor Pugh and Lincoln Stein as Clarivate’s Highly Cited Researchers of 2020. This recognition demonstrates the incredible global impact of Ontario’s researchers and underscores the importance of sharing knowledge for greater progress around the world.
Fong, Pugh and Stein, who are senior OICR investigators and leaders, have led several international scientific collaborations that have uncovered valuable knowledge and informed disease control and management strategies in Canada and around the world.
- Dr. Geoffrey Fong leads the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, which conducts cohort studies on the implementation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The ITC Project has conducted studies in 29 countries, inhabited by more than 50 per cent of the world’s population.
- Dr. Trevor Pugh, who was recently named one of Canada’s Top 40 Under 40, leads highly-collaborative genomics studies that are focused on applying sequencing analysis in the clinic. His landmark cancer genome studies have advanced research across different cancer types and his work continues to make precision cancer medicine a reality.
- Dr. Lincoln Stein has led large international data sharing consortia, such as the International HapMap Consortium and the International Cancer Genome Consortium, which have led to highly-cited scientific tools and discoveries. The tools, data and knowledge resulting from these consortia have been used by tens of thousands of people around the world.
“We’re proud that cancer researchers here in Ontario are making a worldwide impact that will improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer,” says Dr. Laszlo Radvanyi, President and Scientific Director of OICR. “I congratulate Drs. Fong, Pugh and Stein on this well-deserved recognition.”
The highly-anticipated annual list identifies researchers who demonstrated significant influence in their field or fields through the publication of multiple highly cited papers during the last decade. Their names are drawn from the publications that rank in the top one per cent by citations for field and publication year in the Web of Science citation index. Clarivate’s methodology draws on the data and analysis performed by bibliometric experts and data scientists at Clarivate’s Institute for Scientific Information.
The full 2020 Highly Cited Researchers list and executive summary can be found online here.
December 11, 2017
Strict e-cigarette policies are meant to keep non-smokers from smoking. But they may also be preventing many smokers from quitting
Regulatory strategies on electronic cigarettes vary from country to country. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, led by Dr. Geoffrey Fong, explored how different regulatory environments might influence the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. This research could be used to help shape e-cigarette control policies that minimize the potential health risks and recognize the potential benefits of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid.
May 31, 2017
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco is used by over 1 billion people and is the number one preventable cause of death and disease. Tobacco—especially smoked tobacco—causes 30 per cent of the world’s cancer cases and so tobacco control is the number one strategy for preventing cancer. Tobacco use kills six million people a year. It also brings a staggering economic cost of US$1 trillion a year in health care expenditures and lost productivity.
The WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a treaty that was created to combat the global tobacco epidemic. Currently, 179 countries and the European Union have joined the treaty, which obligates countries covering about 90 per cent of the world’s population to implement a set of strong evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. The FCTC is, in effect, the most extensive cancer prevention effort in history. The FCTC recently marked ten years since its coming into force. But how much impact have these measures made? A research team centered at the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project), University of Waterloo (UW), recently published a study that demonstrated the positive impact of the FCTC on smoking rates.
Dr. Shannon Gravely, Research Assistant Professor at UW, was the lead author on the study, which was published in Lancet Public Health in March. The study examined how the implementation of five key FCTC tobacco policies affected smoking prevalence across 126 countries. “We looked at the highest-level implementation (i.e. fully satisfying the requirements of the FCTC) of these measures between 2007-2014 and the smoking prevalence estimates for the first 10 years of the FCTC, from 2005 to 2015,” says Gravely. “We found a strong and statistically significant association between the number of these FCTC measures and decreases in smoking rates.”
The five tobacco demand-reduction measures studied by the ITC Project team were: 1) Taxation; 2) Smoke-free policies; 3) Warning labels; 4) Bans on advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and 5) Cessation programs. The researchers found that with each additional measure implemented at its highest level, countries experienced an average decline in smoking prevalence of 1.57 percentage points, or a relative decrease of 7.09 per cent.
“It is indeed good news that the FCTC measures are associated with decreasing the number of smokers, but the bad news is that few countries are actually implementing these effective measures,” says Gravely. Only a fifth of the countries covered in the study had implemented taxes on tobacco at the highest levels called for under the treaty. “We found this to be particularly worrisome as it is known that increasing the price of tobacco via taxes is the most effective way to reduce tobacco use,” says Gravely. In fact, none of the five key FCTC policies had been implemented by even half of the countries.
“Overall, the study found that these measures, when implemented at their highest levels are very effective at reducing smoking rates,” comments Gravely. “Our findings highlight the importance of tobacco control measures in improving global health by directly decreasing the rates of smoking thus in turn indirectly reducing tobacco-attributed-non-communicable diseases.”
Dr. Geoffrey Fong, Professor of Psychology and Public Health and Health Systems at UW and OICR Senior Investigator, is Chief Principal Investigator of the ITC Project. Fong, a co-author of the article, commented, “This study should be a call to arms for governments to strengthen and accelerate their efforts to fully implement the FCTC secure in knowing that such efforts will significantly reduce the devastation caused by tobacco products in their countries.”
August 11, 2016
OICR’s Geoff Fong receives major funding to examine e-cigarettes and the impact of public health policy
Around the world it has become common to walk down the street and see a new trend – people vaping (using e-cigarettes). The widespread use of e-cigarettes has caught the attention of the scientific community. Recently, OICR Investigator Dr. Geoff Fong was awarded funding from Canadian and U.S. federal funding agencies to evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes and determine the effectiveness of policies around their use.
May 31, 2016
For many years, smoking was considered a sophisticated and glamorous pastime advertised to millions as a source of relaxation and freedom. But today, in the face of decades of research showing the harmful short and long-term side effects of smoking, including cancer and lung disease, that perception has almost entirely disappeared.
Yet many people continue to smoke. Almost 15 per cent of Canadians (more than four million people) were active smokers in 2013, with the majority of smokers reporting that they smoked daily. Tobacco use is the leading cause of cancer and cancer deaths in the world and it contributes to many other serious health conditions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco kills approximately six million people per year globally. Preventing the use of tobacco and helping users quit are the important first steps in a long-term effort to ensure fewer people develop and die from lung cancer and other related diseases.